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Histone modification is an epigenetic process involved in the regulation of gene expression. Histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylases (HDACs) have opposite functions, but both are involved in regulating a variety of oncogenic processes. HDAC inhibitors increase the acetylation of lysine residues on histone proteins, thereby changing the gene expression pattern for important genes involved in cell cycle, maturation, and cell death.